Burs are the first tools used during a root canal. They open the inside of the tooth so the canals can be reached. Burs come in different shapes and sizes depending on the type of tooth and treatment.
Root Canal Explorer
This small, pointed tool is used to explore the inside of a tooth once it has been opened by burs so the endodontist can find orifices. Sometimes an explorer may be used to remove small amounts of calcification.
Similar to but longer and sharper than explorers, excavators remove small amounts of tissue from inside the tooth.
The barbed broach is used to remove the majority of tissue from inside a tooth. It is inserted into the tissue so its barbs will grab the tissues when the tool is removed.
Files and Reamers
Like long, thin drill bits, these tools come in a variety of sizes. They are used gradually, the smallest first, to open and widen the canals so they can be accessed by the next appropriate tool.
This kind of drill bit helps to further open the canal, particular in molars. They are also used during root canal retreatment to remove gutta-percha, which is a putty-like material commonly used to fill root canals.
This tool is used exclusively to remove gutta-percha during retreatment.